Open Access Commentary

Immunotherapy as a Future Treatment for Relapsed and Metastatic Primary Pulmonary Sarcomas

Vasa Jevremovic, Alex Agelidis

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2016/26676

Primary pulmonary sarcomas (PPS) are aggressive tumors that are ideally treated with complete surgical resection, although seldom possible. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have proven to be inadequate as second-line in the majority of cases, requiring investigation into novel approaches to treatment. Due to the high rate of recurrence and advanced disease progression, immunotherapy is a future treatment modality that must be investigated in order to provide better prognosis. Studies predominantly focus on other soft tissue malignancies such as osteosarcoma, and thus research pertaining to PPS is limited.


Open Access Original Research Article

Gallbladder Carcinoma in Ghana: Histopathological Examination of Cholecystectomy Specimen

Leonard Derkyi-Kwarteng, Ato Ampomah Brown, Kafui P. Akakpo, Ernest Addae, Dennis Amoah, Emmanuel Diabor, Solomon E. Quayson

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2016/24468

Objective: The aim of the study was to find out the incidence of gallbladder carcinoma in cholecystectomy specimen and the histological types from Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana.

Methods: The study was a retrospective study using findings from 507 cholecystectomy specimen that were received at the Department of Pathology, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital from 2006 – 2013.

Findings: Sixteen out of the 507 cholecystectomy specimen were malignant representing 3.15%. The commonest histological type of malignancy reported was adenocarcinoma, the mean age at presentation was 65.3 years (SD ±11.9 years) with the commonest clinical presentation being right hypochondrium pain.

Conclusion: The histopathological classification of gall bladder carcinoma in Ghanaian does not differ much from reported cases.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Better Perspective of Nuclear Atypia in Nottingham Prognostic Index: Study on Breast Carcinoma Patient Cohort from Eastern India

Dipti Rani Samanta, Surendra Nath Senapati, Tapan Kumar Sahoo, Puspanjali Khuntia, Saumyaranjan Mishra, Sandeep Satapathy, Rabi Narayan Mallick

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2016/25232

Aims: This paper uses the parameter-based correlation to Nottingham prognostic indexwith specific attempt for histologic grade/ nuclear atypia.

Place and Duration of the Study: The retrospective analysis was conducted at Acharya Harihar Regional Cancer Research Centre and Hospital, Cuttack, Odisha within a period of 6 years starting from 2008 to 2013.

Methodology: In this paper we have done retrospective analysis of the histopathological data of 1372 breast carcinoma patients from eastern India and subjected to different regimens of therapy and patient health constitution driven treatment outcome. This paper uses the parameter-based correlation to NPI with specific attempt for histological grade/ nuclear atypia.

Statistical Methods: SPSS version 22.

Results: The results of the study gives a impression that the correlation of NPI and histologic grade bears statistical significance and especially nuclear atypia and mitotic activity are two of those parameters with higher significance of correlation with NPI.

Conclusion: Nuclear atypia as seen from multivariate analysis and correlation study can be a better prognostic marker for a range of values with most the confidence interval being up to 3.71.


Open Access Original Research Article

Sex Hormones, Oestrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor and Human Epithelial Receptor 2 Expressions in Pre and Postmenopausal Sub-Saharan African Women with Breast Cancer

Olulope O. Ajayi, Mabel A. Charles-Davies, John I. Anetor, Adeyinka F. Ademola

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2016/25259

Aim: This study was carried out to determine the serum levels of sex hormones and gonadotropins as well as the expression of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epithelial receptor 2 (HER 2) in pre and postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

Study Design: Case-control study.

Place and Duration of Study: Surgical Oncology Clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria between April 2011 and July 2014.

Methodology: 169 non-pregnant women aged 48.3±1.3 years were recruited for this study. They comprised of 85 histologically confirmed breast cancer pre-therapy (cases) matched with 84 apparently healthy women without breast cancer (controls) according to age and menstrual phase. Both cases and controls were subdivided into pre and postmenopausal groups (54 premenopausal cases; 31 postmenopausal cases; 53 premenopausal controls; 31 postmenopausal controls respectively). Anthropometry and reproductive history were obtained by standard methods. Blood (10ml) was obtained from participants and centrifuged to obtain serum. Oestradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Expression of ER, PR and HER 2 were determined by immunohistochemistry. Data analysed by Chi-square, Student’s t-test and multiple regression were considered statistically significant at p<0.05.

Results: All premenopausal cases (100%) had ER and PR receptor negative expressions out of which 46(88.5%) had HER 2 receptor negative expression. Oestradiol and progesterone were significantly higher in postmenopausal cases compared with controls (p<0.05) while FSH and LH were significantly higher in premenopausal cases than controls (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The pathophysiology of breast cancer may be based on menstrual phase. Elevated gonadotropins and sex hormones may be important in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Triple negative breast cancer observed in 88.5% of premenopausal women with breast cancer is critical in the management of the disease especially in younger women.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Adenexal Masses Diagnosed During Surgery in Pregnancy

M. R. Mamatha, V. Harshini, Shreelatha ., C. Gayathri, T. R. Prathibha, H. Nataraj, K. Ravindra

Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2016/20397

Introduction: With improved antenatal care in south India, increase in number of hospital visits by the pregnant women is in turn increasing the detection rate of benign conditions like ovarian cysts during ultrasound. When the benign ovarian cysts are detected, there are various methods of managing and follow up is necessary.

Materials and Methods: We evaluated adnexal masses discovered during the cesarean sections, based on inpatient and operative records, birth and pathology registries. Cases with adnexal masses benefited usually of surgical treatment during the cesarean section, cystectomies, ovarectomies and rarely adnexectomies being preformed.

Results: In the study period of three and half years, 40 women with adenexal masses were recognized during abdominal procedures, done in pregnancy. 22 women had cysts size measuring more than 4 cm, and 1 woman had bilateral clear cyst. Though various studies have shown dermoid to be the most common pathology, we found clear cysts in 11 women.

Conclusion: Surgical management of adnexal masses during caesarean section can and should be performed at this time avoiding later surgery for this incidental pathology.